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Family :


Division :



Evergreen, trees or shrubs, mostly mangrove species. Leaves simple, opposite, rarely alternate, entire, stipules inter-petioler. Inflorescence axillary cymes, sometimes racemes or fascicles. Flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual. Calyx persistent, 3-16 lobed, calyx tube adnate to the ovary or free. Corolla lobes equal in number to the calyx lobes. Stamens usually twice number of petals, sometimes more, free or connate at base, adnate to calyx tube or petals. Ovary 2-12 locular, inferior, styles simple, stigmas simple or lobed, ovules 1 to indefinite in each locule. Fruits a softy berry or a drupe. Seeds 1-many, germinating viviparously in mangrove species.

Key to the Genus

Serial Key Reference
1a. Leaf apex acute, shortly acuminate or mucronate, if obtuse then inland trees, not mangrove trees 2
1b. Leaf apex obtuse or slightly notched; all mangrove trees 4
2a. Midrib extended into a short mucro; calyx lobes always 4; stilt roots large. Petals entire, anthers dehiscing by a large ventral suture Rhizophora
2b. Midrib not extended into a mucro although lamina sometimes shortly acuminate; calyx lobes 5 -16; stilt root small or absent 3
3a. Calyx lobes 5-8, deltoid; petals glabrous, erose or fimbriate, each embracing 1stamen. Inland trees Carallia
3b. Calyx lobes 8-16, subulate-lanceolate; petals fringed with white hairs on the margins, and sometimes also on the dorsal surface, each embracing 2 stamens. Mangrove trees Bruguiera
4a. Calyx lobes 2.5- 4.0 mm long, ovayte to ovate-lanceolate; stamens 10-12; hypocotyl ridged Ceriops
4b. Calyx lobes 10-15 mm long, linear-oblong; stamens indefinite; hypocotyl smooth Kandelia