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Family :


Division :



Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees. Leaves simple, petiolate, ovate or orbicular, entire, lobed or variously dissected, serrate to crenate, hairy or glabrous. Stipule free, mostly caducous. Flowers axillary, solitary or in compound cymes, bisexual, hypogynous. Epicalyx 3-16 or more, free or connate, sometimes absent. Sepals usually 5, persistent, spathaceous and caducous. Petals 5, basally fused to the androecium. Stamens numerous, monadelphous, anthers unilocular, reniform. Carpels 5 in a single whorl. Ovary superior, 3-many locular, style 1, long, passing through the stamina tube. Fruit a schizocarp or a loculicidal capsule. Seeds reniform, ovoid or globose, glabrous or densely hairy.

Key to the Genus

Serial Key Reference
1a. Epicalyx absent 2
1b. Epicalyx present 3
2a. Plants mostly pubescent; fruit usually globose, depressed at the apex Sida
2b. Plants usually with stellate hairs; fruit subglobose, not depressed at the apex Abutilon
3a. Corolla tubular, never completely expanded Malvaviscus
3b. Corolla campanulate, cylindrical or funnel-shaped, never tubular, always completely expanded 4
4a. Epicalyx segments not more than 3 5
4b. Epicalyx segments more than 3 6
5a. Epicalyx segments foliaceous; calyx campanulate; seeds cottony Gossypium
5b. Epicalyx segments linear to ovate; calyx cupular; seeds not cottony Malva
6a. Calyx spathaceous, adnate to the base of corolla; stigma cushion-like Abelmoschus
6b. Calyx not spathaceous, free to the base of corolla; stigma not cushion-like 7
7a. Staminal column equal to the length of corolla; fruit schizocarp Urena
7b. Staminal column shorter than the petals; fruit capsule 8
8a. Calyx cupular; style unbranched Thespesia
8b. Calyx not cupular, 5-lobed; style branched 9
9a. Stigma clavate; capsule laterally 5-winged Fioria
9b. Stigma discoid or capitate; capsule not winged Hibiscus