Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, often
shrublets or trees, bristly or scabrous hairy with tubercled base. Leaves simple,
alternate or very rarely opposite, entire or serrate, exstipulate.
Inflorescence scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary, bracts present or absent.
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, rarely
zygomorphic. Calyx 5-lobed, imbricate or valvate, persistent. Corolla 5-lobed,
gamopetalous, twisted or imbricate, salver-shaped, funneliform or campanulate.
Stamens as many as corolla lobes and alternate, attached to tube, anthers
longitudinal slits. Ovary 2 united, superior, 4-locular by false septum, style
terminal or gynobasic. Fruits drupe or nutlet, 1-4 seeded. Seeds erect or