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Family :


Division :



Stock errect, forming a massive trunk, covered with numerous scales and when old covered with a mat of black interlacing roots. Stipes scaly at least near the base, when young the bases of stipes closely interlacing roots, apex of the trunk covered with numerous scales. Frond large usually bi-pinnateand more or less deeply tripinnatiid. Sori dorsal on the veins , never terminal. Sorus numerous , often very compact, sessile or stalked, generally on the elevated receptacle, often mixed with hairs. Usually with broad, verticular or sub-oblique elastic ring, indusium present or absent, if present small cup shaped, which is completely encloses the sorus when young.