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Genus :


Family :



Perennial, tufted herbs. Stem erect, mostly triquetrous, rarely subterete, often clothed at the base by persistent leaf sheaths or their fibrous remains. Leaves tristichous, usually narrowly linear, sheathing at base, with a ligule at the junction of blade and sheath. Inflorescence panicles, racemes or spikes, more rarely reduced to a single spikelet. Spikelets terete, sessile or peduncled, few-many flowered, wholly male or wholly female or bisexual. Bracts foliacious or glume-like. Flower unisexual. Male flower consisting of three free stamens. Female flowers consisting of a single pistil enclosed in a bottle shaped prophyll; stigmas 2 or 3. Utricles membranous, beakless to strongly beaked. Fruit a nut, trigonous or lenticular, enclosed within the utricle.

Key to the species

Serial Key Reference
1a. Utricles shiny, triquetrous, not inflated, conspicuously 2-4-nerved on each face 2
1b. Utricles dull, inflated, not triquetrous, strongly 3-5-ribbed on each face or strongly 5-10-nerved 3
2a. Utricles 2.7-3.0 mm long, brownish-green C. continua
2b. Utricles 3-5 mm long, olivaceous to reddish-castaneous C. filicina
3a. Utricles spongy 3-5-ribbed on each face, stramineous or brown, 2-4 by 1(-1.5) mm, abruptly beaked, the beak usually straight, with oblique mouth often becoming bifid, ¾-1.5 mm long C. cruciata
3b. Utricles strongly many-nerved (5-7 or c. 10 nerves on each face), 3½-5 by 1-2 1/3 mm 4
4a. Utricles distinctly inflated, obscurely trigonous, 9-10 nerves on each face; nutlets often rostrate C. indica
4b. Utricles rhomboid, trigonous, 5-7 nerves on each face; nuletst erostrate C. stramentitia