trees or climbers. Leaves spirally arranged, opposite or distichous, stipulate,
stipules caducous, lamina simple to palmately-lobed, margin dentate to entire,
membranous. Male inflorescence axillary, racemose or spicate, female
inflorescence densely capitate to elongated, bracts clavate, persistent. Male
flowers: perianth lobes 4, filaments 4, inflexed in bud, pistillode spicate.
Female flowers: perianth connate into a tube, entire or 3-4 lobed, persistent,
ovary sessile or stipitate in fruits, style 1, lateral, stigmas linear, often
with vestigial second lobe at the base. Fruits globose syncarp, orange-red at