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Description


Trees or rarely shrubs, bark, branchlets and fruit exuding white or yellow, thick and sticky latex. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, midrib prominent. Flowers polygamous, small, 4-5 merous, solitary or in cymes, axillary to terminal panicles. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate. In male flowers stamens numerous, situated in a ring or in several bundles surrounding a rudimentary ovary, more often on a central 4-5 cornered mass, rarely free. In female or bisexual flowers staminodes minute, free or united, surrounding the ovary, stamens 8 to many. Ovary 2-12 celled, crowned by a large peltate stigma, often spreading, ovule solitary in each cell, attached to the inner angle. Fruit a fleshy berry, with a coriaceous rind, pulpy when ripe, 1-12 seeded embedded in juicy pulp. Seeds oblong or ovoid.

Key to the species

Serial Key Reference
1a. Sepals and petals 5, or rarely petals 4 or sepals 6. Branchlets 4-gonous; berries c 6.5 cm in diam. G. xanthochymus
1b. Sepals and petals always 4 2
2a. Stigma in female flower and fruit smooth G. mangostana
2b. Stigma in female flower and fruit papillose or tuberculate 3
3a. Anthers dehiscence longitudinal, pyriform or by 2 short clefts; rudimentary pistil various 4
3b. Anthers dehiscence transverse, circumscissible, or by 2 or 4 clefts; rudimentary pistil absent or minute; ovary 6 to 8-locular. Stigma convex, 6-8 lobed 5
4a. Ovary bilocular. Female inflorescence 3-flowered, berries c 4.2 × 3.5 cm diam. G. anomala
4b. Ovary 6-8. Leaves oblong or elliptic oblong, narroed at both ends G. speciosa
5a. Male flowers in terminal panicle; female flowers in terminal spicate racecems G. sopsopia
5b. Male and female flowers 1-3 or in axillary and terminal panicles or umbels 6
6a. Male flowers usually 1 -3; berries generally smooth 7
6b. Male flowers many; berries generally grooved or lobed 8
7a. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, lanceolate or obovate, 3.5 cm broad. Flowers almost sessile, berries 2-3 cm in diam., 4-seeded G. morella
7b. Leaves narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5 cm broad. Male flowers 1-2, sessile with more than 20 stamns G. lanceaefolia
8a. Leaves oblong, elliptic or lanceolate; stamens 12-20 or more, monadelphous; ovary 8-11-locular; stigmatic rays 8-11; berries up to 7 cm in diam. with 6-8 vertical grooves ending about middle , mamillate G. gummi-gutta
8b. Leaves broadly lanceolate; stamens numerous; female flowers with staminodes in 4 clusters; ovary 6-8-locular; stigmatic rays 6-8; berries 2-4 cm in diam. with 4-8 vertical grooves from base to apex, not mamillate G. cowa