or perennial grasses, culms often coarse and robust. Leaf-blades linear, ligule absent or hairy. Inflorescence of
racemes arranged on a central axis, densely spiculate, spikelet pairs in 4
rows, or congested. Spikelets narrowly elliptic to sub-rotund, plano-convex,
acute to awned; lower glume triangular, 1/3- ½ spikelet length; upper glume and
lower lemma equalling spikelet,
prominently 5-7 nerved, acute to rostrate or lower lemma awned; lower florets
male or barren; upper lemma coriaceous, smooth, shining, shortly beaked; upper
palea acute, apex reflexed.